Krishna Thakur[1]


The New Education policy (NEP) will play a crucial role in making India as a Self-Reliant (Atmanirbhar). The Evolution of Education policy started from the University Education Commission (1948-49) to New Education Policy 2020. In June, 2017 “a committee for the draft National Education Policy” was constituted under the chairmanship of Dr. K. Kasturirangan, which submitted the draft in 2019 to the Government. The policy was formulated after consulting, that involved nearly 2 lakh suggestions from 2.5 lakh Gram Sabha’s, 6600 Blocks, 6000 ULB’S & 676 Districts. This policy will replace the National Policy on Education of 1986 after 34 years. The vision of this policy is a step to achieve a SDG4 Goal which states that “ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all” by 2030.”

It contains different provisions for the advancement & growth of the students which includes early childhood education even at a Aganbadi centers & Play schools which will be act as an edge for the students. The New Education policy promotes the Indian education system towards the modern education which involves learning through Digitalization and has increased the scope of the opportunities.

The New Education policy has many key provisions such as Early childhood care & Education, Attainment of foundational literacy & numeracy, Curtailing the Dropout rates and ensuring universal access to children at all Level, Curriculum & pedagogy, Student assessment, Robust teacher education & recruitment, School governance & Standard setting & accreditation for school education etc. The New Education policy facilitate the broad way for the development of child, focuses on specialization & vocational learning, Internships & training.

Today, India is dreaming to be the world leader in the coming years but it all depends on the youth of a country. To achieve this knowledge will play a crucial role and it can be acquired only through education. The prevailing education system has many problems and shortcomings. The common problems are Less emphasizing on the development of the cognitive skills & learning outcomes, less emphasize on the research at most of the Indian universities & the quality of the research lacks the competitiveness, ratification, ineffective regulatory system and large affiliations of universities lead to low standard at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The policy attempts to rectify the shortcomings of the National Policy on Education of 1986, by Regulation, Holistic Multidisciplinary Education, Internationalization of Higher Education Institutions (HEI’S), Equity & Inclusion etc.

However, the New Education policy has certain challenges such as Allocation of 6% of GDP in Education sector, three language Formula at school level is being opposed by the southern states of India as the Education is the concurrent subject under Schedule 7 of the Indian Constitution which provides rights to the state governments and necessary to coordinate with the states. The biggest threat of the New Education Policy is the Fear of Commercialization of Education as it is permitting the foreign universities to set up their institutions in India. But looking at all the circumstances it is believed that New Education Policy will revolutionize the whole Indian Education system & it will make Indians not only educated but Self Reliant.

Key Words – New Education Policy, Self-Reliant, Regulation, Comprehensive Development.



The objective of the research is to study in detail about the benefits of the New Education Policy (NEP) and how it will be beneficial for the students. An attempt is made to understand the Role of NEP and how it changes the prevailing Indian Education System, what are the key changes that it has led in the history of education in India. The main objective of the research is that, how through the NEP people will become Self-Reliant (Atmanirbhar) and how it will help in the development of a country.


The project throws a light on the topic “Role of New Education Policy & Effects on Indian Education system.” The Research also revolves around to study the changes that New Education Policy will bring in the current Indian Education system. The Research will also deal with the achievements & drawbacks of Education policy of 1968 & 1986, The significance of the New Education Policy, its Implementation challenges & other issues and what will be the Future effects of the New Education Policy.


The New Education policy will make India a Global Knowledge Superpower & Self Reliant.


1.         Why New Education Policy is needed?

2.         What is the significance of New Education Policy?

3.         What are the challenges in the implementation of New Education Policy?

4.         What are the changes New Education Policy has brought in the prevailing Education system?

5.         How New Education Policy will help India to become Self-Reliant (Atmanirbhar)?


The Research method applies in this research is doctrinal. An explanatory study is used in order to find underlying principles. Therefore, the data would be collected from the secondary sources of information. This includes book, journal & internet. Keeping this in view the researcher has gone through different books, articles, web reference etc.


The Research is primarily based on secondary sources that includes both printed and non-printed materials. A printed material includes Articles, Journals & Case books, whereas non-printed material includes data obtained from online databases like Jstor, Manupatra, Westlaw India, Government Websites and other reliable sources.


A Uniform mode of citation (20th Edition) is used throughout the research by the researcher.



1.         Issues with the Prevailing Education System

2.         Reasons for the adoption of New Education Policy

3.         Vision & Key Provisions of New Education Policy and its effects on Indian Education system.

4.         Significance of New Education Policy

5.         Challenges in the Implementation of New Education Policy

6.         Role of New Education Policy to make India Self-Reliant (Atmanirbhar).



The research work includes analysis by the researcher of the New Education Policy and how it will help in the development of a country. The youths are considered as the foundation of the country and they will be more adaptable to the change when they are educated and have sufficient scope of the opportunity. It can be only possible through effective education policy.  The research work includes references of the articles, books and Reports. The Research contains a critical evaluation and the prosperity of the policy.


“Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.” The New Education policy focuses on wider scope of development of a child. In May 2016, the committee for the draft of education policy was set up by the government under the chairmanship of late T.S.R. Subramanium. The report submitted by the committee, based on the report the draft was prepared which was named as ‘Some inputs for the draft of New Education Policy, 2016’. In June 2017, “a committee for the draft National Education Policy” was constituted under the chairmanship of Dr. K. Kasturirangan, which submitted the draft in 2019 to the Government. The report proposes an education policy, which seeks to address the challenges of: (i) access, (ii) equity, (iii) quality, (iv) affordability, and (v) accountability faced by the current education system.  The policy was formulated after consulting, that involved nearly 2 lakh suggestions from 2.5 lakh Gram Sabha’s, 6600 Blocks, 6000 ULB’S & 676 Districts.  The policy aims to make Indian Education system as the best education system in the world with the comprehensive development of a child.

It is the third education policy formulated by the government after the policies of 1968 & 1986. The policies of 1968 & the National policy on education 1986 was too old as compared to the dynamic environment. The two policy documents were very differently prepared, the first, an extensive academic and research effort and, the second, a largely bureaucratic and political effort that made it narrow.  The action steps which needed to take was not complained properly as per the recommendations. The earlier policies were formulated when there was no introduction of the coding, decoding, & use of technology. The policy is needed because now the education has been transformed towards the digitalization; the role of technology has a rose to such an extent that nowadays no work can be possible without the technological knowledge. The New Education Policy addresses the need of modern education; it is needed to compete with the rest of the world.

The Vision of Policy is to make India a Global knowledge Superpower & to develop best human resource. The policy not only focuses on the students but also on the teachers. The policy made it compulsory for the teachers by the year 2030 to have a Bachelor of Education (B. Ed.) degree to improve the quality of Education. The New Education policy promotes the Indian education system towards the modern education which involves learning through Digitalization and has increased the scope of the opportunities.

The New Education policy facilitate the broad way for the development of child, focuses on specialization & vocational learning, Internships & training. The new Education policy insists on values, skills & Dispositions that support strong commitment towards the sustainable development & human rights. It is the welcomed move by the government for the wider development of students.


The prevailing education system has many issues which are necessary to be addressed. The education system which doesn’t emphasize on the technological development & according to the needs of a time. The education system was based on the traditional mode of education which is very difficult to survive in the time of the advanced education methods. The following are the major issues with the prevailing education system-:

1. Inequality in Educational System

The Indian government has taken many steps in order to curve the Dropout rates but India is continued to witness high dropout rates. During teenage, the percentage of girls studying decreases, nearly 92.3 percent are studying, at the age of 13 years. Whereas only 65.5 per cent are studying at age 19.  The data clearly shows the one of the biggest issues with the prevailing system.

2. Lack of synergy between enrolment & learning outcomes

The learning & understanding among the students has not increased much as even the enrolments were high at elementary and primary level. The students were unable to read and write properly. All India figure for children in class 3 who are able to do at least subtraction has not changed much, from 27.6% in 2016 to 28.1% in 2018.

3. Inequality in occupational attainments

The present education system focuses much on the Ratification and theoretical aspects lack the vocational & practical learning. Due to this, the students find it very difficult to get job. The 60% of the candidates and employers considers it ineffective for the job opportunities.

4. Encouraged Flock mentality

The education system encourages only the trend of the streams such as the science, commerce & Humanities. It flocks mentality of the parents and then students of which most favoured courses are management. Engineering & Medicine.

5. Heavy Emphasize on marks

The present system puts much emphasize on the marks and lacks the overall development of students. Failure in the exams also results in the death of students by doing suicide, physical & mental disorder etc. Between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2019, India lost more than 1.7 lakhs students to suicide.

6. Digital Divide

The Digitalisation has divided the students in two parts out of which one have access to internet & cell phones but other none. But looking at the growth of the digital transaction the old education policy was not effective.

7. Improper Regulation

The Government has setup the number of educational institutions but it always lacks the regulating body which results in leak of the examination papers and mismanagement in regulating the schools and colleges.


There are various factors which has forced for the adoption of New Education Policy 2020-:

1. Growth of Technology

The Growth of technology has changed the mode of education which has shifted from the offline to partially online or completely online. The common reasons are such as Internet revolution, Globalisation; Right to Education etc. mandated the change for the mode of education. To combat with it the New Education Policy was needed.

2. Narrow time lag between the generation of new knowledge and its application

At present time flies to fast in order to walk with the time, the curriculum needs to be focussed on the current happenings which make the students to found it relevant & also enthusiastic towards the education.

3. Alignment with the global Sustainable Development Goals

The India has promised to comply with the goal of sustainable Development by making children as educated by the year 2030 and to have basic knowledge of many societal needs & equitable opportunities. The sustainable development aims to make a better place of living for the future generation.

4. Curb the Innovation Gap

The Research & Development doesn’t hold much importance in the current education system. The Indians research are first for India not first for the World. The research are being done by Indians focuses on past events held not on future. The Research work needs to focus on the predictability of the future. The gap between the current best practice and next practice needs to be fulfilled through investment in Research & Development.

5. Vocational Learning

Now the need for the practical learning is very needed without that the knowledge doesn’t hold any much importance. Today India needs the education policy which can create not only employees but self-employed people.

There are many other reasons as well which also hold upmost importance such as the stream deviation among the students between the commerce & science etc. which prevents the students from having the more options of the subjects.


Vision of the New Education Policy (NEP)

This National Education Policy envisions an education system rooted in Indian ethos that contributes directly to transforming India, that is Bharat, sustainably into an equitable and vibrant knowledge society, by providing high-quality education to all, and thereby making India a global knowledge superpower.  It visions to make Indian more committed towards the country, fulfilling fundamental Duties, respecting the laws of the land, working towards the sustainable development and conscious & protective towards the human rights.

Key Provisions of New Education Policy (NEP) & its effects on Indian Education System

The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.  The Policy has many key provisions which is based on 21st century’s demand of the education. Now let us know the effects of New Education Policy (NEP) by comparing with the present education system.

Basis    Present System Provisions under             

New Education Policy

Early childhood care & education (ECCE)    The Early Childhood Care & Education (ECCE) is not available to many young children. The conditions of the socially- economically disadvantaged groups. The Policy proposes for the age group of 3-6 years an elementary education at Aganwadi centres & pre-school. It proposes universal access to education.

Attainment of foundational literacy & numeracy       According to reports nearly 5 crores students at elementary school are not even able to read and write properly. It is the biggest failure of the system   It proposes the National mission on foundational literacy & numeracy will be achieve by the year 2030. It provides National Book promotion policy ensure availability & quality materials to students.

 The numeracy will available on Digital Infrastructure for knowledge Sharing (DIKSHA) for advanced learning.

Universal access to education and curtailment of dropout rates        The Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) states that the enrolment is high till the grade 8 but number of the dropout rates much higher after the Grade 8. For instance, the GER is 90.9% between grade 6-8 but it fell to 56.5% between the class of 11 & 12th.The policy facilitates the multiple entry & exit at undergraduate level which will give the chance to continue according to their convenience. The policy aims to achieve 100% G.E.R. by the year 2030. It also facilitates open and distance learning by expanding the open schools. It also focuses on tracking the dropout students with the help social worker.

Curriculum & Pedagogy the Present Education system is not specialized in nature, it is general in nature which does not promote the vocational and technical learning. This is the main reason the unemployment is increasing day by day.     The NEP 2020 helps the schools take a giant leap forward by re-configuring the classes into key-stages of 5+3+3+4 years from ages 3-18.  It involves experimental learning & freedom of choosing wide variety of Subjects combination.


The Quality of the education depends on the objectives and the significance of the policy. The significance of the policy is analysed as follows-:

1.Much Emphasize on Vocational Learning

The Policy emphasize much on vocational learning as they are the part of the work. According to Indian labour report, only 4% of the young labour receives the vocational training. By attaining vocational knowledge at early age, the students will get the practical knowledge which will develop the enthusiasm among the students to choose the desired field for their career. It will help to be more competitive and developed with the skills.

2. Allocation of 6% of GDP in Education sector

At present, India allocates only 4.6% of GDP which is very low as compared to global standard & India ranks at 62nd in terms of expenditure on the education.  The allocation of 6% of GDP in education sector will help in improvement of the infrastructure and standard of the education. It will allow the institutions to recruit desired number of teachers.

3. Reforms in School Education

The formal inclusion of Aganwadi centres and preschool will restructure the academics with mid-day meals etc. will ensure towards the nutritious India. The report cards will be prepared by considering the holistic development of a child. The Internships & experimental learning will develop critical, innovative thinking among the students.

NEP 2020 aims to removing differences between public and private schools through the setting up of a State Standard Setting Authority (SSSA).

4.Three Language formula for school education

The three-language formula will encourage the students to learn their mother tongue or local language in the school. The mode of teaching will also be provided in the mother tongue or the local language till the 5th class and it may continue further will develop the interest among the students.

Even though the Arts, Culture are very much associated with the local languages will help them to preserve the same.

5.Multiple Entry & Exit at undergraduate level

The Multiple entry and exit at undergraduate level will help the droppers, who drop out due to their family issues or financial constraints to complete the course conveniently. It will also encourage the students who join the job during vocational trainings to complete the course accordingly.

6.Internationalization of Indian Campuses

The establishments of Indian selected universities in the foreign will raise the quality of the education and increase the competition among the university to provide better educational facilities. The government needs to form the stringent rules and regulations for foreign universities setting up their institutions in India to control the fee and quality of education so that it can be provided at a reasonable cost.

The Policy has to play a crucial role in the development of Indian youths. Among the many imperatives, the deadline to achieve universal literacy and numeracy by 2025 should be a top priority as a goal that will crucially determine the progress at higher levels. 


India has made several reforms to become self-reliant but the results of the policies are not up to the mark. India has adopted the policy of New Economic Reforms in 1991 but it led a dependence of India on other countries for even essential items. Before the colonial rule, India had a share of nearly 24% in the world trade but it deteriorates once britishers established the colonial rule over the country. The present government has shown an initiative to return the golden Era of India. However, the government has made a New Education Policy (NEP) with view to become Atmanirbhar and taken steps to achieve the goal.

1. Contributes towards Start-up India Initiative

The New Education Policy has designed in such a way that it will ensure quality of good education. It will promote the technicalities of research and development and provide a road map for the self-employment through entrepreneurship and more opportunities.

2.Promotes Growth in Research & Development (Innovation)

The Policy facilitates the investment in the research & development which will further promotes innovation among the students by attaining the practical knowledge. It will be the backbone for the self-reliant India.

3. Environmental sustainability

The environment is the big concern for the developing countries. The policy promotes the e-learning among the students which will result in reduction of the wastages and reduce the unnecessary movements and gives more importance to the Environment-Friendly activities.

4. Develops Advanced Technological skills

At present, the one thing which has the huge importance that is the technology. With skilled workers the technology will also improve and make an India a hub of technology.

5.Promotes digitalization & transparency and More Opportunities by providing the large number of subjects.

6. Encourage Self Employment (entrepreneurship)

No country can generate the employment opportunities without the support of the people. The policy aims to develop the quality of the entrepreneurship among the students.


1. Allocation of Funds

The allocation of fund is the big issue as earlier also being promised by the various governments but it has not achieved yet. The Policy talks about the percentage of GDP but it doesn’t state how to raise funds.

2. Multilingualism

The Multilingualism might become hindrance among the people as India has different languages which might create the language distinction. It will become problematic in inter-state migration for the employment, education etc. and reduce the opportunities of students. The three languages out of which the education will be provided in mother tongue & local language might become problematic to understand other language in change of place.

3. Vocational learning may attract financial constraints students to dropout

The vocational learning has many advantages but it has some disadvantages such as it will attract the students from marginalised backgrounds to dropout early to get the job during the vocational learning period. It might raise dropout among the students.

4. Federal setup needed

The central government has made the policy without consulting the state governments. As education subject falls in the concurrent list therefore the central government needs to coordinate with the state government for the effective implementation of the policy just like PARAKH scheme.

5. Fear of commercialization & Privatization of Education

The policy clearly giving the path for the entry of private players in the education which will commercialize the education. The policy also suggests that there will be the entrance exam for the standardised courses (Higher level) and it will be conducted by the National testing agency. It will encourage the coaching classes and rote memorization which further erode the value of examination conducted by colleges, schools etc.

6. Lack of Detailed thinking in some areas

The detailed thinking is necessary as the policy proposes four-year undergraduate course but same experiment has failed in the Delhi University and led confusions among the students.

7. Ground Realities

The policy proposes a lot but if we see the ground realities, they represent the different picture. There are many institutions which do not have sufficient teachers, facing shortage of teachers and many private institutions pays less salary which make it non-attractive for good applicants to pursue B.Ed. degree.


The New Education Policy will result in overall development of a child & great step by the government for the development of India. The Conflicting goals and complete disconnect with previous policies need to be address by the government so that we can ensure the overall development of children. The coordination & priorities should be set up among the national institutions, state level institutions & private institutions as the education are also provided by the state government body. The Government needs to coordinate with them to achieve step by step short- and long-term goals. The Government needs to set the realistic targets so that they can be achievable by collaboration and coordination.

The Power & functions need to be divided so that the duplication and overlapping of the work will be avoided. There should be proper allocation of work and powers and duties to be divided in order to ensure specialization of works. The policy needs to be reviewed from time to time so that the necessary regulating will be possible and there should be proper execution of the policy in order to ensure global standard of education.

The New Education policy will make India a self-reliant (Atmanirbhar) country with effective and capable human resource and after all India is the country with highest number youth & known as the youth’s country. India running on the path of becoming “Vishwa-Guru” and with modern based policy, we can say that, it is the return of Golden Era of India.

[1] Student of Indore Institute of Law