– Manthan Saxena
Student, B.A. LL.B., Indore Institute of Law
– Abu Nazar Quasmi
Student, B.A. LL.B., Indore Institute of Law
– Ashwini Patel
Student, B.A. LL.B., Indore Institute of Law
– Dr. Varsha Upadhyay
Asst. Prof., Indore Institute of Law
This research work speaks about the terrorism at the global index and its condition in INDIA. T he research work throws light on the well defined definition of terrorism , who are terrorists and the various reasons behind the terrorist activities . The person who intellectually trains the terrorists and spreading intellectual terrorism and what is intellectual terrorism is discussed in this research work. The various issues which is covered under this research paper are as follows:-
1. Meaning and definition of terrorism.
2. Terminologies related to terrorism.
3. Biggest incidents do far.
4. Terrorism and ongoing conflict.
5. Intellectual terrorism.
6. Terrorism’s global tentacles.
7. Is terrorism muslim monopoly?
This whole topic covers the basic idea of the origin of terrorism in the whole world through the neutral opinion and considering the words of holy quran, geeta and bible. This project work will help the students to understand the terrorism at the global level and its effect on INDIA.
1. MEANING AND DEFINITION OF TERRORISM
The United States Department of Defence defines terrorism as “the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological.” Within this definition, there are three key elements – violence, fear, and intimidation – and each element produces terror in its victims.
The FBI uses this definition: “Terrorism is the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.” The U.S. Department of State defines terrorism to be “premeditated politically-motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience”.1
The word terrorism comes from the the French word “terrorisme” which comes from the latin term “terrere” which means fear.First time it was used in French revolution by the leader of Jacobin club whose name is maximillian Robespierre.maximillian Robespierre defines terrorism as follows:-“terror is nothing other than the justice”.
In modern times terrorism represents the killing of innocent people by non governmental political or religious activists. In my language terrorist is a person who creates the fear in the minds of the innocent person(one who does not do any wrongful act) and the phenomena is known as terrorism.
If the state labels the person as a terrorist, he/she will labels himself differently like:-
• Freedom fighters
So, one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter.
In 1987, L.A.KHAN said that terrorism spreads from the aggrieved groups.
Definition of L.A.KHAN is very negative in nature because the aggrieved people will always prevails in the society forever. It does not matter that how much developed the country is but there will always the presence of aggrieved people who will become the terrorist as per the definition of khan.
Terrorist does not have the power to fight the state face to face and that is why they used the other ways like the Guerrilla war, Intellectual terrorism etc. to show their intention to the state. Terrorism is a form of asymmetric war and used due to the impossibility of face to face. The other way ofterrorism is the intellectual terrorism which is a kind of invisible insect which kills the society through the intellectuals by the right of expression.
It is the duty of the state to punish the intellectuals although many times it is not possible to get the information about the direct action by the terrorists but it is possible to put rein on the mouth of the intellectuals.
A) TALIBAN- The word Taliban comes from the Pashtu language which means student and is used to talk in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Taliban is an Islamic fundamentalist movement whose aim is to implement the sharia law in the whole world.
From 1994-1996 they are the militant.
From 1996-2000 they are in government in Afghanistan. From 2001 till now they are the armed rebellions.
B) AL-QAIDA– The word al-Qaida comes from the Arabic language which means “according to Allah”.
It is a global Sunni Islamic movement created by the Osama bin laden , who was a citizen of SaudiArab.
Osama bin laden belongs to the rich family and he recognise and understands the basic problems in the arab world is due to the interference of America in arab and that is why he wants America to leave Saudi arab but the king of arab did not take any keen interst and that is why laden attacks onAmerica in the form of demolition of world trade centre.The movement was created due to the agitation comes out from the attacks of Russia over Afghanistan, and therefore America supported the al-Qaida in fighting Russia at that time. It comes out from the mujahedeen militant group. mujahedeen got the support of united nations central intelligence agency.
C) MUJAHEDEEN- The word comes fromArabic language which means warriors.
Members of mujahedeen fought with the Russian army and the war does not have any result and therefore Russian army has to take his steps back from the afghan.Mujahedeen got the support of united nations central intelligence agency and one of the famous picture regarded to it is given below:-
Figure1 : President Ronald meets mujahedeen members at the white house.
D) AUM SHINRIKYO-
It originated in Japan, where it was behind the deadly sarin nerve gas attack on the Tokyo subway in 1995.Aum Shinrikyo, whose name means “supreme truth”, began in the 1980s as a spiritual group mixing Hindu and Buddhist beliefs, later working in elements of apocalyptic Christian prophesies. The group’s founder, Shoko Asahara, declared himself to be both Christ and the first “enlightened one” since Buddha.The group, often shortened to just Aum, gained official status as a religious organisation in Japan in 1989.
Asahara picked up a sizable global following, speaking at universities and writing books. At its peak, he had tens of thousands of members worldwide.
Figure 2 : Logo of Aum Shinrikyo
Aum Shinrikyo is designated as a terrorist organisation in the US and many other countries, but Aleph and Hikari no Wa are both legal in Japan, albeit designated as “dangerous religions” subject to heightened surveillance.Some estimates say they have 1,500 followers between them, with reports the number is slowly growing.A few human rights advocates have defended those members who have not been found guilty of crimes, saying they were unaware of plans to attack the Tokyo subway. But members face little prospect of receiving social or official acceptance, despite attempts to distance themselves from the events of 21 years ago.2
E) BOKO HARAM- The word boko haram comes from the Arabic language which means useless things are not allowed in islam. Boko means useless and haram means things which are not allowed.the basic objective of boko haram is to abolish the western education completely and the person who adopts the western education, they were kidnapped by the boko haram.
Boko Haram, whose name roughly translates into “Western education is forbidden,” has killed more than 20,000 people and displaced some 2.3 million, according to the latest figures from the United Nations. The jihadist group’s uprisingwas fueled largelythroughthe group’s systematic campaign of abducting children and forcing thousands of girls and boys into their ranks, according to a report issued Wednesday by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). It’s been three years since Boko Haram militants ambushed the small Nigerian town of Chibok in the middle of the night and abducted 276 schoolgirls before vanishing into the forest.3
Fig. 3 : BOKO HARAM
F) ISIS- It means the Islamic state in Iraq and Syria.
The members of boko haram comes from the salafi jihadist and follows the sunni wahabi extreme doctrine.The KING of Saudi arabAL-SAUD follows the wahabi customs and they implement the laws of wahabi culture and that is why they supports the ISIS indirectly but now ISIS has told that the king is not the real wasabi but we are the real wasabi and that is why they want the control of SaudiArab in their hand. Therfore the king tooks the help of America to destroy isis.
Fig. 4 : Leader of ISIS, Bagdadi
ABU BAKR AL BAGDADI was the leader of this militant group and the important thing about this group is that they have their own passports and tax policies and theyforms the state in Iraq and Syria.
4. TERRORISM & ONGOING CONFLICT4
The deadliest terrorist groups are also engaged in war and armed conflict, therefore the total casualty counts are much higher than just their deaths through terrorism. ISIL, Boko Haram, the Taliban and al-Qa’ida are also engaged in conflicts with either government or other non- state groups.
Over 27,000 people were killed as a result of violent conflict with ISIL. Deaths resulting from violent conflict between governments and ISIL increased by 78 per cent in 2015, up from 15,000 the previous year. This includes conflicts with the government of Iraq, Yemen and the Assad regime. ISIL was also engaged in conflict with other non-state groups that would not be considered terrorism, including attacks on groups in Afghanistan, Lebanon and Yemen. Violent conflict in Afghanistan has risen since the drawdown of the international troops in 2013. Taliban is in assurgency, carrying out more terrorist attacks which have resulted in a 29 per cent increase in deaths in 2015. Battle-related deaths from conflict with the Taliban also rose 34 per cent from 2014 to 2015. The Taliban was able to briefly capture the city of Kunduz in northernAfghanistan in 2015, the first city to fall into the Taliban since their regime was removed from power in 2001. At the time of writing the Afghan government has taken back control of the city but clashes between Taliban and Afghan government forces in and around the province were ongoing.
5. INTELLECTUAL TERRORISM
The main source of the terrorism is the ideologies. The people of different sects have different ideologies, customs, rules and regulations and they want to promote them and from here onwards the problems started and sometimes take such a big face that at last it affects the people at a large amount ,mentally or physically. This whole process is known as the exchange of thoughts which contradicts the thoughts of others and this very process is known as the intellectual terrorism which is spread by the intellectuals.
Meaning of the intellectual is relating to your ability to think and understand things especially complicated ideas. So if anybody wants to tell anything he have the full freedom as per the laws of that country but how can we tell anybody that you are the intellectual terrorist. The simple phenomena which recognise that who is intellectually spreading terrorism is that he or she is telling something against the country.
What the word terrorism means is that an act which goes against the state through the wrongful means , now it does not matters whether you are doing such act violently or intellectually.
For example ISIS- Isis is an sunni Islamic terrorist group who wants the sharia law every where but what they are doing is the direct action but the people who throws stones in kashmir are the terrorist and the people who gives them such education are the intellectual terrorist because the shoulder is of the people who did the terrorist activities but the gun is of the people who teach them therefore they are also the terrorist although they are not directly involved in the action but theyare held liable for such activities therefore theyare the intellectual terrorists who washed the brain of angry people intellectually to use their anger in terrorist activities.
This type of terrorism have deep root in the countries like India, America etc where the many religions collides with each other and the followers of different religions wants their choices above the state and therefore such slogans comes out -“BHARAT TERE TUKDE HONGE…INSHAALAAHH”
The concept of intellectual terrorism led the foundation of two groups which are:-
a) leftist and b) rightists.
One who supports the nation is the rightist and one who supports the freedom is the leftist class of people.
SOURCE OF INTELLECTUAL TERRORISM- a) The basic and the main source of the intellectual terrorism is the educational institutions. The best examples is the Syria where the revolution takes the different mode which starts from the university campus and the same climate were started here in India where students does not goes for education but for the political purposes and reside their upto the age of 40-45.
b) Another reason of the intellectual terrorism is the unemployment. When the person does not have the work , then he wants to get the attention of other people and for this he started saying irrelevant things under his right of expression.
a) The judiciary of the country should be strict to punish such people without any delay of dates. Judiciary should implement the laws stringently and punish the political leaders who spreads the intellectual terrorism through their followers.
b) The education system of our country should be change in the way that after the certain amount of attempt you are not allowed to do the certain course which are present in India. There should be the age restrictions so that the students will only do studies not the other things in the form of intellectual terrorism.
c) The people of this country should not respond towards the stuff created by the political leaders.
6. TERRORISM’S GLOBAL TENTACLES
The above explained terminologies are directlyconnected with the terrorism’s global tentacles but how these terrorist groups are grown up, what are the reasons all these things were discussed in this topic and the first of all is5 :
Now from the above diagram it can be well understood that the expenditure of America alone is more than the other nine countries and that is why indirectly or directly every where America is connected to the terrorism , how. Lets understand:
When Russia attacks the Afghanistan, mujahedeen fighters fought with the military of the Russia and the main question is that from where these fighters got the weapons. The answer to this question is the photo ofAmerican president Ronald with the mujahedeen members. The central intelligence agency ofAmerica helps the mujahedeen to fought against the Russia and America helps theAfghanistan so that he can get the controlover the oil fields in theAfghanistan.
The basic motive of the above diagram is just to show that not even all the countries of this world is capable to fought with the America and the reason behind is the international currency which is the dollar and dollar is printed in America only therefore America don’t have the tension of balancing the foreign currency stock. This is the real power ofAmerica , whenever it want, can print dollar.
America is weapon based country, it have to sell their weapon and technology to feed their people and that is why in every war America is present.
From the mujahedeen ,al-Qaida was created which also got the support of the America but slowly the leader Osama bin laden understands that the America wants to exploit the whole Arab and therefore he started insurgency against America and in agitation he attacks on the world trade centre and shows America his power.
The people ofArab thinks that Osama is their messiah but theAmerica after this attack started attackingArab world continuouslyand therefore the wholeArab world goes against theAmerica except the SaudiArab.
After the death of Osama bin laden , the wahabi group of SaudiArab started rebell against the siya people and America helped them but gradually they started saying that the king ofArab is not real wahabis not the king of SaudiArab and therefore want to conquer the whole Arab to implement the shariat because of its rebellion nature the king of SaudiArab goes against the ISIS who founds the state in Iraq and Syria. Now America wants to destroy ISIS and that is why this cold blood war was going on continuously. Why the America wants to destroy the ISIS is just because to take control over the oil fields.when America needs isis to fought Russia , America sold weapons to isis and earns money and when America wants the to destroy the isis to nget the control over oil tanks in Syria and Iraq.Therefore Saudi Arab increases its military expenses and got the second position in the above table because the king of SaudiArab knows that the America for his benefit can also attacks over the SaudiArab.
In this way America wants monopoly in every matter in each and every country and the attacks on the united states ofAmerica is just the beginning becauseAmerica is just REAPING its own seed.
REASON BEHIND THE PARIS ATTACKS-
The attacks on Paris is not just to show the anger of ISIS but also the reaction of the action in mail.
France’s operation in mail in the year 2013 is something rare: a military intervention that got the success. . Coming hot on the heels of the robust French involvement in Libya, the unilateral intervention in Mali in 2013 seemed to confirm Paris’s willingness to be forceful on the world stage – even if France had taken a back seat in the Middle East and objected to the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq.
France’s recent involvement in Mali came after a 2012 coup in the country, in which a group of officers in the Malian government toppled the democratically elected government ofAmadou Toumani Touré. As chaos gripped the capital, an insurgency began to capture towns in the country’s northern territory of Azawad. This insurgency was made up of both Islamists and members of the Tuareg minority, a nomadic people who had sought independence from Mali since at least 1958 6.
To groups like Islamic state mail is the reason to attack on Paris. After the Paris attacks , Islamic state warns the France in the following way:-“smell of death will never leave their noses as long as they lead the convoy of the Crusader campaign.”
France’s recent involvement in Mali came after a 2012 coup in the country, in which a group of officers in the Malian government toppled the democratically elected government ofAmadou Toumani Touré. As chaos gripped the capital, an insurgency began to capture towns in the country’s northern territory of Azawad. This insurgency was made up of both Islamists and members of the Tuareg minority, a nomadic people who had sought independence from Mali since at least 1958.
7. TERRORISM IS MUSLIM MONOPOLY?
What is terrorism? The definition changes according to the change in government. Basically the person who causes terror in the minds of the innocent people is called the terrorist. The persons like braggart Singh, as ad, Mandela, Benjamin, Washington, are terrorist once , but now they are the heroes of their countries because the previous government termed them as terrorist and the present government terms them as the true patriotic persons. Same man , same work but different labels.
In QURAN surah-al-hazurat chapter 49 verse 6 it is written that if you get information , first investigate then only implement ,but what Muslims like kasab are doing ,without investigation they implement the words of hafiz sayyid on Mumbai. Maoists, ulfa, bhindrawala, ltte all these are non Muslim terrorist groups. Asoka, Hitler, bush was more dangerous people then the saddam, Osama and isis.I agree majority of attacks was done by Muslims but justice Krishna writes-“all the attacks done by Muslims are the reaction of babri masjid demolition.” who are liable for the demolition?..POLITICIANS .they want only power and did such activities for vote banks.
In QURAN, Sarah-al-Maida, chapter 5 verse 32 it is written that, if a innocent killed by you, then the whole humanity is killed by you. There are around 362 religions in the world and how will you classified a terrorist into 362 different religions.
At last, I conclude my topic that no religion tells us to do terrorism, then why terrorism is used as the symbol of Muslims by media.” In my opinion there is no religion of a terrorist”
Two things have to be clarified in the conclusion which are as follows:-
a) India is intolerant?- the people who used to say that India is an intolerant country and there is more possibility of terrorismin India , these people forgot that India is a country which taught the lesson of tolerance to the whole world through Gautam Buddha, Swami Vivekanand and many other person. We the people of India belongs to different religion but then also lives with fraternityand it is the factual thing because manyresearch shows that only 50-60 people joins the ISIS but what about the tolerant people who lives in English world. The highest rate of people who joins ISIS is from the English world therefore the other countries need not to teach us that what is tolerance and what is intolerance.
b) English world wants peaceful and happy life- studies shows that the leaders of English world are involved in every incidence directly or indirectly. They want democracy and peace in the Islamic world but what they have done is to destroy the Islamic world by their attacks.
The slogan ofAmerica itself says that they are not seculars .the slogan ofAmerica is:- “IN GOD WE TRUST” this slogan explains each and every thing that except god they don’t trust any other and therefore it is but obvious that they will not led the superiority of other religion in the world except the Christianity.
On the other side India is the only country in the world whose motive of goodness and secularism is well defined from its slogan that is “SATYAMEV JAYATE” which means that truth alone shall prevail.