• –          Akshat Agarwal[1] & Vidhik Sakhre[2]


Technological trends and clinical improvements have more advantageous the manner human beings stay and work. Courts are locations wherein human beings searching for justice and hundreds of thousands of instances throughout the globe are tested each day, and judgments are delivered. The courts machine in India is on a sizeable and complicated scale. The software and dissemination of records in India has been spreading at a quicker tempo over the last few decades. This has set the degree for the computerization of courts to beautify transparency and performance with inside the Indian judicial machine.

The Indian sub-continent is an exceptionally populated state and from 2007 the authorities of India commenced imposing the e-Courts Project as a citizen-centric initiative for expeditious and low cost justice transport. This article analyses the diverse dimensions concerned with inside the e-Courts manner and explains its importance with inside the justice transport machine in India. In additionally appears on the diverse demanding situations of imposing the sort of sizeable machine throughout judicial machine of India.

Keywords: Courts, Information Technology, e-Courts, India, Artificial Intelligence


The new COVID19 outbreak was designated by the World Health Organization as a “public health emergency” of international concern on January 30, 2020[3]. Therefore, the whole country was declared completely isolated[4]. Coronavirus is unthinkable. Even in these difficult times, the Supreme Court paved the way for further access to justice through video conference trials. Will this become a catalyst for the digitization of justice in India?

The Hon’ble apex courtroom docket addressed the problem of transport of justice within side the shape of order for the duration of the COVID-19 lockdown.

A bench consisting CJI Bobde and Justices DY Chandrachud and L Nageswara Rao issued a route in In Re: Guidelines for Court Functioning Through Video Conferencing During COVID-19 Pandemic[5] concerning measures to be taken with the aid of using courts to lessen the bodily presence of all litigants inside courtroom docket premises with the aid of using adapting the social distancing suggestions.

These suggestions have been issued with the aid of using invoking Article 142 of the Constitution of India as an extra-everyday jurisdiction. In the aforementioned order, the District Courts have been directed to undertake digital courtroom docket listening to via modes prescribed with the aid of using the worried High courtroom docket and to offer video conferencing centers for litigants who lack resources.

PM Modi Hails India’s Judicial System[6]

We are enhancing cloud-based infrastructure that will not only enhance ‘ease of justice’ but also enhance ‘ease of living’ of the people in the country,” PM Modi said.

The Prime Minister further said that the Gujarat High Court has set an example with video conferencing, judgments and orders were uploaded on their website amidst lockdown. Gujarat HC became the first for broadcasting Court proceedings live, he added.

Our judiciary has always interpreted the Constitution positively and creatively to strengthen it further. Be it safeguarding the rights of people of the country or when any situation arose where national interest needed to be prioritized, the judiciary has always performed its duty,” said PM Modi said.

“Rule of law in Indian society has been the basis of civilization for centuries. Our ancient texts say the root of good governance lies in providing justice. Bar and judiciary should work towards building the world-class Judicious System in the country,” he added.

How technology gave limbs to Indian judiciary[7]

LIMBS[8] is a web-primarily based totally software for tracking instances regarding the principal authorities of India, in a greater powerful and obvious manner. It is an initiative of the Department of Legal Affairs (DoLA), Ministry of Law and Justice, and ambitions to digitize the criminal technique and screen the complete lifestyles cycle of a case.

Through a Gazette Notification issued on 8th February, 2016[9] with the aid of using DoLA, all ministries of the Government of India and their departments, sub- departments, and connected places of work have been introduced beneath the ambit of LIMBS. It is an modern and easy-to-get right of entry to on line device that is to be had 24×7 to all stakeholders—authorities officers, branch users, nodal officers, better officers of ministries, advocates, arbitrators, and claimants of sixty two ministries.

Users can add cutting-edge facts concerning a case, and in an effort to be to be had on an actual time foundation on a unmarried unified platform to keep away from confusion, delay, and economic burden on public exchequer. In a brief span of 3.five years, LIMBS has created a centralized database of 4.07 lakh courtroom docket instances wherein the Union of India is a party, in addition to 2,500 arbitration instances.

The following features of LIMBS illustrate the focused approach it has in trying to reduce pendency.

Clubbing of Cases, Harmonisation of Policy, Use of Real-Time Analytics, Predictive and Perspective Analysis, Mining of Text

Challenges in Setting up Virtual and Online Courts in India[10]

Following are the four key considerations and recommendations of the committee as far as mainstreaming of virtual courts is concerned:

The Question of Access:

The document info how representatives of the Bar testified that big range of litigants and advocates lack net connectivity and needful infrastructure and manner to take part in digital hearings and the method. This has critical implications. The apparent one being that a big chew of our citizenry is liable to being excluded from the method of justice shipping attributable to elements past their control.

The Degree of Comfort:

A especially underrated however similarly consequential aspect is whether or not everyone, despite the fact that get right of entry to  dependable net connectivity is universal, is cushy and properly versed with the brand new gear and mediums of justice delivery. It is exciting that the Secretary, Department of Justice said that big, properly-to-do regulation corporations and advocates in city regions could face no problems in comparison to the ones contributors in rural regions given the virtual divide.

The Idea of Open Courts:

In this, representatives of the bar went to the volume of pointing out that digital courts “threaten the constitutionality of Court complaints and undermine the significance of Rule of regulation which paperwork part of the primary shape of the Constitution.” Expressing difficulty over the opaqueness of such hearings, they said that digital courts are antithetical to the open courtroom docket device given the confined get entry to that they permit for. The committee changed into then knowledgeable that there are legal guidelines in some of international locations which mandate open get entry to for the general public to open courtroom docket hearings.

The Question of Privacy and Data Security:

This is in which the file makes a few exciting and revolutionary recommendations important to the overall performance of any virtual justice shipping mechanism. The committee referred to how courts the world over have had times of intrusion and information privatives or protection issues at the same time as adapting to a completely digital mode of engaging in hearings. It additionally took observe of the reality that maximum digital courtroom docket lawsuits in India presently take region the usage of third-celebration software program or structures and some of them have already been rejected in advance on grounds of being dangerous to use.

PROS and CONS of Video Conferencing[11]

Recently, the Chairman of Bar Council of India had addressed a letter to the CJI[12] opposing the digital listening to submit lockdown length pointing out the yawning hole among sources to be had for video-conferencing and e-submitting with legal professionals of humble history from rural towns compared to that of the elite elegance of huge towns. He entreated to introduce a digital courtroom docket gadget in a phased manner.

However, the council has favored the concept of conducting “digital listening to” in particular the Apex Court and High Courts for exquisite pressing matters, however the aforementioned letter highlights the reality that “90% of the advocates and judges are blind to the era and its nuances. The humans sitting on accelerated chairs are so remote from floor realities it truly is why they’re advocating such idea process”.

Currently, video conferencing is getting used for extraordinarily pressing topics while the e-submitting facility is to be had for all topics. Apart from the contemporary COVID-19 triggered state of affairs in which there has been a dire want for the judicial fraternity to stay accessible, the judiciary has to technique the digital courtroom docket assignment post- COVID-19 disaster as well. Unfortunately, even earlier than this disaster, many human beings did face problem having access to justice via courts because of loads of motives inclusive of a loss of economic means, bodily disabilities, and different unavoidable circumstances.

There are numerous blessings of listening to thru video conferencing inclusive of no requirement of bodily presence in which events do journey miles to be found in character earlier than courts and on the equal time, it is going to be price and time powerful for the events’ attitude in addition to the judiciary. Digitalisation will lessen the humongous quantity of pendency of instances earlier than courts and might be a powerful treatment for not on time justice.

The Hon’ble Supreme Court of India in State of Maharashtra vs. Dr. Praful Desai[13] said in mild of segment 273 of CrPC, the term ‘presence’ cannot be interpreted to best suggest the real presence of someone in any courtroom docket. Hence, proof may be recorded without the requirement of being bodily found in courtroom docket in a scenario in which events are positioned remotely, or instances in which confidentiality is to be maintained, in which there’s a terror of threat to the lifestyles of any witness or times in which witnesses do now no longer deliver their statements because of worry of having entangled in courtroom docket matters.

How Can Judicial Data Be Used For AI?[14]

Giving Access to Judicial Statistics for Innovation:

Judicial facts check with quantitative figures that seize special aspects of the justice system. A top instance of publishing judicial facts is the National Data Judicial Grid (NJDG)[15], an internet dashboard that updates pendency numbers throughout all district and excessive courts in India, in actual time. Giving third-celebration technologists API (Application programmes interfaces) get entry to the NJDG and different e-courts web sites that acquire judicial facts can result in higher information analytics for technological innovations.

Using Existing Pool of Judgments and Cases:

Under the standards of not unusual place regulation which Indian courts inherited from our Anglo-colonial judicial system, beyond judgments are binding regulation that govern the rights and responsibilities of individuals, even though they had been now no longer celebration to the authentic cases (i.e., the doctrine of stare decisis). Therefore, having a clean expertise of case regulation isn’t handiest something this is required via way of means of endorse however it is rudimentary expertise can significantly advantage the not unusual place litigant.


As lengthy as negative humans won’t get justice on time there’s no actual that means of “Justice, social, financial and political” referred to in our preamble, Cases within side the decrease courts is wherein the foundation of the trouble lies. Most importantly, we want to well known it and screen it on a persevering with basis. Other than the use of superior technology, the answer for this trouble may be observed in lots of approaches like extending operating hours, lowering public holidays, putting in place extra courts, appointing extra judges, filling up the vacancies. Technology completed proper can bend time in approaches we haven’t idea of. Technology can permit courts to evolve extra speedy to modifications in laws, society and demographics via way of means of taking benefit of configurable platforms, commercial enterprise regulations engines and workflows.

It is time we pass past the standard arguments of transparency and responsibility within side the judiciary as they’ll anyways be an axiomatic effect of an open judiciary. Instead, if the Indian judiciary without a doubt desires to utilise the transformative ability of rising technology which includes AI, it’s miles vital for it to comprehend the impediments in present day facts and treatment them swiftly. An open facts coverage commencing floor regulations of facts accessibility, in addition to carving exceptions to keep man or woman informational privacy, is a sine qua non for the Indian judiciary in today’s virtual age.

[1] Student, Indore Institute of Law.

[2] Student, Indore Institute of Law.

[3] Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Situation Report -10, World Health Organization (WHO), January 30, 2020

[4]  Order dated March 24, 2020 vide No. 403/20202-DM-I (A) passed by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.

[5] Suo Moto Writ Petition (Civil) No. 5/2020.



[8] Legal Information Management & Briefing System .




[12] Letter BCI: D: 1372/2020 (Council) dated 28.04.2020.

[13] AIR 2003 (4) SCC 601.